BACKGROUND: Given the growing evidence for an environmental contribution to the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), searching for local and regional differences in PD prevalence in multiple areas across the world may further clarify the role of environmental toxins.

OBJECTIVE: To provide local and regional prevalence estimates of PD in Poland.

METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of PD and its trend over the last decade (2010 to 2019) based on data from the National Health Fund in Poland. We specifically examined sex differences in PD prevalence, as well as differences across Polish regions.

RESULTS: During the above period, the prevalence of PD in Poland increased from 226 per 100,000 to 269 per 100,000 inhabitants. Unexpectedly, we found that PD was 1.2-times more common in women than men. The increase in prevalence over the past decade was different between both sexes: an increase from 250 to 283 per 100,000 for women (13.3% increase), and from 200 to 254 per 100,000 for men (27.1% increase). In addition, we observed differences in prevalence across different Polish regions, with some regions having up to 51% lower prevalence rates than others.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PD in Poland is in line with previously reported prevalence rates across Europe. However, unlike the situation in most of the world, PD was more prevalent in women than men. We discuss several possible explanations as well as potential measures that might help to reduce the growth of PD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-532
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Parkinson's Disease
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2024


  • Humans
  • Poland/epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease/epidemiology
  • Male
  • Female
  • Prevalence
  • Aged
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Adult
  • Aged, 80 and over


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