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The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Artemy M. Kalinovsky, Antonio Giustozzi

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-378
Number of pages24
JournalHumanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development
Issue number2
Accepted/In press29 Oct 2015
Published25 Jul 2017


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    Uploaded date:28 Feb 2018

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King's Authors


This essay explores the various efforts to create an Afghan middle class through three periods: first under the Musahiban dynasty (until 1973) and republic (1973–1978), second during the communist period and Soviet intervention (1978–1992), and lastly since the United States-led invasion in 2001. Drawing on archival research and oral histories, the authors place the development programs of each era into broader context, while pointing to the similarities and differences. The authors also compare the Cold War period, when state-led modernization was in vogue, and the current era, when the role of the state is minimized and NGOs are a dominant part of the development landscape.

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