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The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality

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The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan : From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality. / Kalinovsky, Artemy M.; Giustozzi, Antonio.

In: Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 25.07.2017, p. 355-378.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Kalinovsky, AM & Giustozzi, A 2017, 'The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality', Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 355-378. https://doi.org/10.1353/hum.2017.0023

APA

Kalinovsky, A. M., & Giustozzi, A. (2017). The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality. Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, 8(2), 355-378. https://doi.org/10.1353/hum.2017.0023

Vancouver

Kalinovsky AM, Giustozzi A. The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality. Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development. 2017 Jul 25;8(2):355-378. https://doi.org/10.1353/hum.2017.0023

Author

Kalinovsky, Artemy M. ; Giustozzi, Antonio. / The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan : From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality. In: Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development. 2017 ; Vol. 8, No. 2. pp. 355-378.

Bibtex Download

@article{a6f7bc1e682a40be90425148df451f1f,
title = "The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality",
abstract = " This essay explores the various efforts to create an Afghan middle class through three periods: first under the Musahiban dynasty (until 1973) and republic (1973–1978), second during the communist period and Soviet intervention (1978–1992), and lastly since the United States-led invasion in 2001. Drawing on archival research and oral histories, the authors place the development programs of each era into broader context, while pointing to the similarities and differences. The authors also compare the Cold War period, when state-led modernization was in vogue, and the current era, when the role of the state is minimized and NGOs are a dominant part of the development landscape. ",
author = "Kalinovsky, {Artemy M.} and Antonio Giustozzi",
year = "2017",
month = jul,
day = "25",
doi = "10.1353/hum.2017.0023",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "355--378",
journal = "Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development",
issn = "2151-4364",
publisher = "University of Pennsylvania Press",
number = "2",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan

T2 - From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality

AU - Kalinovsky, Artemy M.

AU - Giustozzi, Antonio

PY - 2017/7/25

Y1 - 2017/7/25

N2 - This essay explores the various efforts to create an Afghan middle class through three periods: first under the Musahiban dynasty (until 1973) and republic (1973–1978), second during the communist period and Soviet intervention (1978–1992), and lastly since the United States-led invasion in 2001. Drawing on archival research and oral histories, the authors place the development programs of each era into broader context, while pointing to the similarities and differences. The authors also compare the Cold War period, when state-led modernization was in vogue, and the current era, when the role of the state is minimized and NGOs are a dominant part of the development landscape.

AB - This essay explores the various efforts to create an Afghan middle class through three periods: first under the Musahiban dynasty (until 1973) and republic (1973–1978), second during the communist period and Soviet intervention (1978–1992), and lastly since the United States-led invasion in 2001. Drawing on archival research and oral histories, the authors place the development programs of each era into broader context, while pointing to the similarities and differences. The authors also compare the Cold War period, when state-led modernization was in vogue, and the current era, when the role of the state is minimized and NGOs are a dominant part of the development landscape.

U2 - 10.1353/hum.2017.0023

DO - 10.1353/hum.2017.0023

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 355

EP - 378

JO - Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development

JF - Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development

SN - 2151-4364

IS - 2

ER -

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