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The Regulation and Function of Histone Crotonylation

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Angeliki Ntorla, Joseph Robert Burgoyne

Original languageEnglish
Article number624914
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Published6 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: This study was supported by the British Heart Foundation (RE/18/2/34213). Publisher Copyright: © Copyright © 2021 Ntorla and Burgoyne. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

King's Authors


Histone crotonylation is a newly identified epigenetic modification that has a pronounced ability to regulate gene expression. It belongs to an expanding group of short chain lysine acylations that also includes the extensively studied mark histone acetylation. Emerging evidence suggests that histone crotonylation is functionally distinct from histone acetylation and that competition for sites of modification, which reflects the cellular metabolic status, could be an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates diverse processes. Here, we discuss the enzymatic and metabolic regulation of histone crotonylation, the “reader” proteins that selectively recognise this modification and translate it into diverse functional outcomes within the cell, as well as the identified physiological roles of histone crotonylation, which range from signal-dependent gene activation to spermatogenesis and tissue injury.

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