The role of diet in the prevention of hypertension and management of blood pressure: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of interventional and observational studies

Ghadeer S. Aljuraiban, Rachel Gibson, Doris SM. Chan, Linda Van Horn, Queenie Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High blood pressure (BP) is a major pathological risk factor for the development of several cardiovascular diseases. Diet is a key modifier of BP, but the underlying relationships are not clearly demonstrated. This is an umbrella review of published meta-analyses to critically evaluate the wide range of dietary evidence from bioactive compounds to dietary patterns on BP and risk of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until October 31, 2021, for relevant meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses of observational studies. A total of 175 publications reporting 341 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (145 publications) and 70 meta-analyses of observational studies (30 publications) were included in the review. The methodological quality of the included publications was assessed using Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 and the evidence quality of each selected meta-analysis was assessed using NutriGrade. This umbrella review supports recommended public health guidelines for prevention and control of hypertension. Dietary patterns including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and the Mediterranean-type diets that further restrict sodium, and moderate alcohol intake are advised. To produce high-quality evidence and substantiate strong recommendations, future research should address areas where the low quality of evidence was observed (for example, intake of dietary fiber, fish, egg, meat, dairy products, fruit juice, and nuts) and emphasize focus on dietary factors not yet conclusively investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100123
JournalAdvances in Nutrition
Volume15
Issue number1
Early online date1 Oct 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

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