King's College London

Research portal

The role of different patterns of psychomotor symptoms in major depressive episode: pooled analysis of the BRIDGE and BRIDGE-II-MIX cohorts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

BRIDGE and the BRIDGE-II-Mix Study Group, Margherita Barbuti, Cecilia Mainardi, Isabella Pacchiarotti, Norma Verdolini, Giuseppe Maccariello, Jules Angst, Jean-Michel Azorin, Charles L Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Allan H Young, Eduard Vieta, Giulio Perugi

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)785-793
Number of pages9
JournalBipolar Disorders
Issue number8
Early online date10 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


King's Authors


BACKGROUND: psychomotor agitation (PA) or retardation (PR) during major depressive episodes (MDEs) have been associated with depression severity in terms of treatment-resistance and course of illness.

OBJECTIVES: we investigated the possible association of psychomotor symptoms (PMSs) during a MDE with clinical features belonging to the bipolar spectrum.

METHODS: the initial sample of 7689 MDE patients was divided into three subgroups based on the presence of PR, PA and non-psychomotor symptom (NPS). Univariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression models were performed between subgroups.

RESULTS: 3720 patients presented PR (48%), 1971 shown PA (26%) and 1998 had NPS (26%). In the PR and PA subgroups, the clinical characteristics related to bipolarity, along with the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD), were significantly more frequent than in the NPS subgroup. When comparing PA and PR patients, the former presented higher rates of bipolar spectrum features, such as family history of BD (OR=1.39, CI=1.20-1.61), manic/hypomanic switches with antidepressants (OR=1.28, CI=1.11-1.48), early onset of first MDE (OR=1.40, CI=1.26-1.57), atypical (OR=1.23, CI=1.07-1.42) and psychotic features (OR=2.08, CI=1.78-2.44), treatment with mood-stabilizers (OR=1.39, CI=1.24-1.55), as well as a BD diagnosis according to both the DSM-IV criteria and the bipolar specifier criteria. When logistic regression model was performed, the clinical features that significantly differentiated PA from PR were early onset of first MDE, atypical and psychotic features, treatment with mood-stabilizers and a BD diagnosis according to the bipolar specifier criteria.

CONCLUSIONS: PMSs could be considered as markers of bipolarity, illness severity, and treatment complexity, particularly if PA is present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

View graph of relations

© 2018 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454