Background: Positioning the left ventricular lead at the optimal myocardial segment has been proposed to improve cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response. Objectives: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis evaluating echocardiographic and clinical response delivered with different guidance modalities compared to conventional fluoroscopic positioning. Methods: Randomized trials with ≥6 months follow-up comparing any combination of imaging, electrical, hemodynamic, or fluoroscopic guidance were included. Imaging modalities were split whether one modality was used: cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), single-photon emission computed tomography, cardiac computed tomography (CT), or a combination of these, defined as “multimodality imaging.” Results: Twelve studies were included (n = 1864). Pair-wise meta-analysis resulted in significant odds of reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) >15% (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.13, P = .025) and absolute reduction in LVESV (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.25, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.08, P = .005) with guidance. CMR (OR 55.3, 95% CI 4.7–656.9, P = .002), electrical (OR 17.0, 95% CI 2.9–100, P = .002), multimodality imaging (OR 4.47, 95% CI 1.36–14.7, P = .014), and hemodynamic guidance (OR 1.29–28.0, P = .02) were significant in reducing LVESV >15%. Only STE demonstrated a significant reduction in absolute LVESV (SMD -0.38, 95% CI -0.68 to -0.09, P = .011]. CMR had the highest probability of improving clinical response (OR 17.9, 95% CI 5.14–62.5, P < .001). Conclusion: Overall, guidance improves CRT outcomes. STE and multimodality imaging provided the most reliable evidence of efficacy. Wide CIs observed for results of CMR guidance suggest more powered studies are required before a clear ranking is possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)482-492
Number of pages11
JournalHeart Rhythm O2
Issue number5
Early online date21 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Efficacy
  • Guidance
  • LV lead
  • Meta-analysis
  • Systematic review


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