Vitamin D plays an essential role in calcium and bone metabolism, immune regulation and possesses profound anti-inflammatory effects. Evidence suggests that low serum vitamin D is associated with increased severity of periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by destruction of the supporting tissues surrounding the tooth, which has several shared risk factors with other chronic non-communicable diseases. The biological functions of vitamin D are mediated by its strong anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and host modulatory properties. Experimental periodontitis models involving targeted deletion of 1α-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of inactive substrate to active 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol), showed augmented alveolar bone loss and gingival inflammation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have also been associated with increased severity of periodontitis. Thus, the involvement of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is biological plausible. Clinical studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between serum 25OHD3 and periodontal disease inflammation. However, due to the paucity of well-designed longitudinal studies, there is less support for the impact of vitamin D status on periodontal disease progression and tooth loss. The evidence emphasises the importance of maintaining vitamin D sufficiency in supporting periodontal health. This review aims to first examine the biological mechanisms by which vitamin D might influence the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and second, discuss the clinical evidence which implicate the role of vitamin D in periodontal disease.