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The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. / Westwood, H; Stahl, D; Mandy, W; Tchanturia, K.

In: Psychological medicine, 25.04.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Westwood, H, Stahl, D, Mandy, W & Tchanturia, K 2016, 'The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis', Psychological medicine. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716000581

APA

Westwood, H., Stahl, D., Mandy, W., & Tchanturia, K. (2016). The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological medicine. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716000581

Vancouver

Westwood H, Stahl D, Mandy W, Tchanturia K. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological medicine. 2016 Apr 25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716000581

Author

Westwood, H ; Stahl, D ; Mandy, W ; Tchanturia, K. / The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: Psychological medicine. 2016.

Bibtex Download

@article{a34390a26b2947cabf41198165ba79a9,
title = "The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.81, p ≤ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95{\%} CI 0.36–0.68, p ≤ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95{\%} CI −0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation.",
keywords = "Anorexia Nervosa, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Meta-analyses, set-shifting, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test",
author = "H Westwood and D Stahl and W Mandy and K Tchanturia",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291716000581",
language = "English",
journal = "Psychological medicine",
issn = "0033-2917",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press (CUP)",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Westwood, H

AU - Stahl, D

AU - Mandy, W

AU - Tchanturia, K

PY - 2016/4/25

Y1 - 2016/4/25

N2 - Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.81, p ≤ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36–0.68, p ≤ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation.

AB - Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.81, p ≤ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36–0.68, p ≤ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation.

KW - Anorexia Nervosa

KW - Autism Spectrum Disorder

KW - Meta-analyses

KW - set-shifting

KW - Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291716000581

DO - 10.1017/S0033291716000581

M3 - Article

C2 - 27109830

JO - Psychological medicine

JF - Psychological medicine

SN - 0033-2917

ER -

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