The combination of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD) is often referred to as the eponymous Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS). The molecular basis of this disorder remains unknown, although the common occurrence of cardiac and vascular anomalies suggests a primary defect of vasculogenesis. Through the description of three previously unreported affected individuals, ascertained through the Adams-Oliver Syndrome European Consortium, we illustrate the phenotypic variability characteristically observed within extended families with AOS. Taken in combination with a detailed review of the available literature, we provide evidence for distinct clinical entities within the ACC/TTLD spectrum, which may reflect genetic heterogeneity within this spectrum of disorders. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.