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The UV/Visible Radiation Boundary Region (385–405 nm) Damages Skin Cells and Induces “dark” Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers in Human Skin in vivo

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Karl P. Lawrence, Thierry Douki, Robert P.E. Sarkany, Stephanie Acker, Bernd Herzog, Antony R. Young

Original languageEnglish
Article number12722
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Early online date24 Aug 2018
Accepted/In press3 Aug 2018
E-pub ahead of print24 Aug 2018
Published1 Dec 2018

King's Authors


The adverse effects of terrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (~295–400 nm) on the skin are well documented, especially in the UVB region (~295–320 nm). The effects of very long-wave UVA (>380 nm) and visible radiation (≥400 nm) are much less known. Sunscreens have been beneficial in inhibiting a wide range of photodamage, however most formulations provide very little protection in the long wave UVA region (380–400 nm) and almost none from shortwave visible wavelengths (400–420 nm). We demonstrate photodamage in this region for a number of different endpoints including cell viability, DNA damage (delayed cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers), differential gene expression (for genes associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and photoageing) and induction of oxidizing species in vitro in HaCaT keratinocytes and in vivo in human volunteers. This work has implications for phototherapy and photoprotection.

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