MX monopnictide compounds (M = Nb,Ta, X = As,P) are prototypical 3D Weyl semimetals (WSMs) that have been shown in bulk single crystal form to have potential for a wide variety of novel devices due to topologically protected band structures and high mobilities. However, very little is known about thin-film synthesis, which is essential to enable device applications. We synthesize TaAs(001) epilayers by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) and provide an experimental phase diagram illustrating conditions for single-phase, single-crystal-like growth. We investigate the relationship between nanoscale defects and electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results provide a roadmap and platform for developing 3D WSMs for device applications.