Time Delay Stability Analysis of Pairwise Interactions Amongst Ensemble-Listener RR Intervals and Expressive Music Features

Mateusz Solinski*, Courtney Nicole Reed, Elaine Chew

*Corresponding author for this work

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Time Delay Stability (TDS) can reveal physiological function and states in networked organs. Here, we introduce a novel application of TDS to a musical setting to study interactions between RR intervals of ensemble musicians and a listener, and music properties.

Three musicians performed a movement from Schubert’s Trio Op. 100 nine times in the company of one listener. Their RR intervals were collected during baseline (5 min, silence) and performances (∼10 min each). Loudness and tempo were extracted from recorded music audio. Regions of stable optimal time delay were identified during baseline and music, shuffled data, and data pairs from incongruent recordings. Bootstrapping was employed to obtain mean TDS probabilities (calculated based on all performances).

A significant difference in mean TDS probability between music and baseline was observed for all musician pairs (p < .001) and for cello-listener (p = .025); mean TDS probability was greater during music. A significant decrease in mean TDS probability was observed for piano-violin (p < .001), violin-tempo (p = .045), and cello-tempo (p < .001) for mixed pairs. The highest inter- musician TDS probabilities were observed in musically tense sections: the final climax before the music dies down for the ending and mid piece in a suspenseful swell. This framework offers a promising way to track dynamic RR interval interactions between people engaged in a shared ac- tivity, and, here, between the people and music properties.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Computing in Cardiology
PublisherIEEE Xplore
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-8252-5
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2023
Event50th Computing in Cardiology Conference, CinC 2023 - Atlanta, United States
Duration: 1 Oct 20234 Oct 2023
Conference number: 50


Conference50th Computing in Cardiology Conference, CinC 2023
Abbreviated titleCinC 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
Internet address


  • time delay stability
  • ensemble musicians
  • RR intervals
  • ECG analysis


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