Toward an MRI-based nomogram for the prediction of transperineal prostate biopsy outcome: A physician and patient decision tool

Su-Min Lee, Sidath H. Liyanage, Wahyu Wulaningsih, Konrad Wolfe, Thomas Carr, Choudhry Younis, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Rick Popert, Peter Acher

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    Purpose: To develop and internally validate a nomogram using biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (B-MRI)–derived variables for the prediction of prostate cancer at transperineal sector-guided prostate biopsy (TPSB). 
    Subjects/patients and methods: Consecutive patients referred to our institution with raised prostate-specific antigen (PSA), abnormal prostate examination, or persistent suspicion of prostate cancer after previous transrectal biopsy between July 2012 and November 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. All patients underwent prebiopsy B-MRI with T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences, followed by 24 to 40 core TPSB with additional targeted cores using cognitive registration. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of prostate cancer outcomes. Multivariable coefficients were used to construct 2 MRI-based nomograms to predict any and significant (Gleason 4 or maximum cancer core length ≥6 mm) prostate cancer at TPSB. Bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. Accuracy was assessed by calculating the concordance index. 
    Results: In total, 615 men were included in the study. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 317 (51.5%) men with significant cancer diagnosed in 237 (38.5%) men. Age, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score, PSA, PSA density, and primary biopsy were predictors of prostate cancer at TPSB on univariable analysis (P<0.0001). PSA showed strong correlation with PSA density and was excluded. The remaining variables were all independent predictors of prostate cancer on multivariable analysis (P<0.0001) and used to generate the nomograms. Both nomograms showed good discrimination for prostate cancer, with a concordance index of 87% for any cancer and 92% for significant disease. Using a nomogram-derived probability threshold of<15%, 111 (18.0%) biopsies can be saved, at the expense of 3 missed significant prostate cancers. 
    Conclusions: These internally validated MR-based nomograms were able to accurately predict TPSB outcomes for prostate cancer, especially significant disease. Our findings support the combination of prebiopsy MRI results and clinical factors as part of the biopsy decision-making process.
    Original languageEnglish
    Early online date8 Aug 2017
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


    • Magnetic resonance imaging
    • Nomogram
    • Prostate biopsy
    • Prostate cancer
    • Risk assessment


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