Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a range of malformations of cortical development each with specific histopathological features. Conventional radiological assessment of standard structural MRI is useful for the localization of lesions but is unable to accurately predict the histopathological features. Quantitative MRI offers the possibility to probe tissue biophysical properties in vivo and may bridge the gap between radiological assessment and ex-vivo histology. This review will cover histological, genetic and radiological features of FCD following the ILAE classification and will explain how quantitative voxel- and surface-based techniques can characterise these features. We will provide an overview of the quantitative MRI measures available, their link with biophysical properties and finally the potential application of quantitative MRI to the problem of FCD subtyping. Future research linking quantitative MRI to FCD histological properties should improve clinical protocols, allow better characterisation of lesions in vivo and tailored surgical planning to the individual.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
- Malformations of Cortical Development/diagnostic imaging