Translation of the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) into three south Asian languages and preliminary evaluation of SDI-21(Urdu)

Naheed Hanif, Nimarta Dharni, Adam Smith, Sangeeta Chattoo, Galina Velikova, Chris Bradley, Dan Stark, Penny Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In the United Kingdom, cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires would allow for inclusivity in assessment in cancer clinics for non-English speakers. The aim was to translate the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) into Urdu, Punjabi and Hindi and undertake preliminary evaluation of translated versions. The study comprised three stages: (1) translation/back translation and evaluation of cultural equivalence of the SDI-21, (2) south Asian (SA) patient evaluation of SDI-21 translations and (3) evaluation using Rasch analysis comparing English and Urdu SDI-21 from data pooled from this and three other studies. Forward/backward translation resulted in minor amendments particularly in forward translation of SDI-21(Hindi). The majority of the 55 patients interviewed found the SDI-21 acceptable and clear, resulting in no amendments (all versions). Rasch analysis demonstrated good fit. Differential item functioning (DIF) was found for one item, in the comparison of white English (WE)- and SA Urdu-speaking groups. Detailed DIF analysis comparing self-completion and read-aloud administration by language group demonstrated this DIF only held for the comparison between SA English speakers (self-completion) and SA Urdu (read out). Translated versions are culturally and linguistically acceptable. The SDI-21 (Urdu) performs similarly to the English version when self-completed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-438
Number of pages8
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011


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