King's College London

Research portal

Treatment in thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome: a review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1181-1188
Number of pages8
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019

King's Authors


Antiphospholipid syndrome an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity alongside the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). This review evaluates primary and secondary thromboprophylaxis in patients with aPL and thrombotic events. In primary thromboprophylaxis a risk-stratified approach is needed based on aPL, comorbidity with other autoimmune conditions and cardiovascular vascular risk factors. In primary thromboprophylaxis, the efficacy of low-dose aspirin is debatable and requires better-designed controlled studies. So far warfarin has not been shown to improve venous and/or arterial thrombosis incidence in aPL carriers and instead increased safety concerns. The benefit of hydroxychloroquine is inconclusive despite promising data, requiring large, controlled trials. For secondary thromboprophylaxis warfarin seems to be the best option with potential in renal transplant recipients and better efficacy at high intensity, although maintenance of target international normalized ratio needs careful monitoring. Aspirin has not shown to be beneficial, and data on rivaroxaban are limited and contradictory. Despite all data being informative, there are limitations that need to be addressed with robust clinical trials.

View graph of relations

© 2018 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454