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Triaxial Catheter-Tip Force Sensor for MRI-Guided Cardiac Procedures

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Article numberN/A
Pages (from-to)386 - 396
Number of pages11
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

King's Authors


This paper presents the development and evaluation of a miniature, three-axis, fiber-optic force sensor. The sensor is manufactured using low-cost, high-resolution rapid prototyping techniques and is integrated with a catheter to enable the detection of force during MRI-guided cardiac ablation procedures. The working principle is based on reflective light-intensity modulation. A force sensitive structure (flexure) is employed to vary the distance and orientation of an integrated reflector when a force is applied at the catheter tip. In this way, the light is modulated accordingly and the force can be calculated. The sensor has a high sensitivity and an adequate linear response along all three orthogonal axes (Fx, Fy, and Fz) and a working range of around 0.5 N. Low-noise, high-gain electronics provide a force resolution of less than 1 gm force. Experiments demonstrate the ability of the sensor to acquire accurate force readings in a dynamic environment. MRI-compatibility experiments are performed in a clinical 1.5-T MR scanner.

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