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Type 2 diabetes prevalence and its risk factors in HIV: A cross-sectional study

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Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0194199
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number3
Early online date12 Mar 2018
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2018


King's Authors



Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a reported greater prevalence and poorer treatment outcomes in people living with HIV (PLWH) than comparable HIV-uninfected cohorts. We conducted a cross-sectional study to delineate the factors driving T2D in PLWH in an ethnically diverse cohort, and additionally observed how these have changed over time.


We studied a diverse HIV cohort in London to determine the prevalence and risk factors for T2D, and compared them to a cohort studied 10 years previously.


Patients were classified as normoglycaemic (fasting glucose <6.0 mmol/l) or dysglycaemic (≥6.0 mmol/l). The relative contribution to dysglycaemia of modifiable and fixed factors, including demographics, anthropometrics, comorbidities, immune status, and HIV therapy, were analysed using univariate and logistic regression analyses.


T2D prevalence was 15.1% in 2015 with a relative risk of 2.4 compared to the general population. The prevalence compared to 6.8% ten years earlier. The 2015 versus the 2005 cohort was significantly older (median age 49 (42–57) years versus 41 (IQR 35–47), p<0.001), had a higher BMI (27.4 (23.3–29.9) versus 24.9 (22.4–28.0) kg/m2 respectively, p = 0.019) and hypertensive (37.9% versus 19.6 respectively, p<0.001). The strongest predictors of dysglycaemia in the 2015 cohort were hepatic steatosis and hypertension, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.74 (3.48–13.03) and 2.92 (1.66–5.16) respectively, and also HIV-related factors of weight gain following antiretroviral initiation and longer known duration of HIV infection (OR 1.07 (1.04–1.11) and 1.06 (1.02–1.10) respectively).


The alarmingly high prevalence of T2D in HIV requires improved screening, targeted to older patients and those with a longer duration of exposure to antiretrovirals. Effective diabetes prevention and management strategies are needed urgently to reduce this risk; such interventions should target both conventional risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, and HIV-specific risk factors such as weight gain following initiation of antiretrovirals.

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