Universal Actuation Module and Kinematic Model for Heart Valve Interventional Catheter Robotization

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Catheters have been widely used to deal with heart valve diseases. However, the diversity in handle structures and bending curvatures imposes significant complexities in safe delivery and positioning. In this letter, we designed a module for single knob actuation assembled coaxially on the catheter handle, composed of a chuck for universal clamping of diameters from 15 to 45 mm and a position-adjustable shaft to accommodate various spacing between knobs. In addition, we proposed a two-curvature with pseudo joints (TC-PJ) model for bending control of bendable sections (BSs) in catheters. The verification was decoupled into two steps based on the other three deformation patterns. Firstly, comparing the two-curvature (TC) model with pseudo-rigid-body (PRB), constant curvature (CC), and Euler spiral (ES) models to simulate planar bending and elongation, the results showed a more accurate shape representation. Then, five distinct catheters were employed to test the clamping universality of the module and tip positioning precision of the TC-PJ model which took torsion and shear strain into consideration. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the standard deviation (SD) of tip position and direction were analysed. Results indicated the module's suitability for clamping these catheters, with the large guide sheath exhibiting minimal position RMSE (SD) of around 0.10 (0.051) mm and 0.049 (2.15) degrees, while the puncture catheter demonstrated the highest position and direction RMSE (SD) extending to about 1.16 (0.53) mm and 0.70 (31.33) degrees, primarily attributed to the coupling of two sequential bendable components. Overall, the proposed actuation module and kinematic model showed the ability of universal manipulation and an average tip position and direction RMSE of 0.65 mm and 0.23 degrees in free space.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5254-5261
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2024


  • actuation and joint mechanisms
  • and learning for soft robots
  • Bending
  • Catheters
  • Clamps
  • control
  • Elongation
  • Kinematics
  • modeling
  • Robots
  • Shafts
  • Shape


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