Validation of the Bladder Control Self-Assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ) in men

Arun Sahai, Christopher Dowson, Eduardo Cortes, Jai Seth, Jane Watkins, Mohammad Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta, Linda Cardozo, Christopher Chapple, Dirk De Ridder, Adrian Wagg, Con Kelleher

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)


    ● To validate the Bladder Control Self-Assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ), a short screener to assess LUTS / OAB in men.

    ● Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) are highly prevalent. Case finding tools such as the B-SAQ have been developed to raise awareness of LUTS, possible bladder problems and prompt people to seek treatment.

    Patients & Methods
    ● Prospective, single centre study, urology outpatient setting. N=211.

    ● All patients completed the B-SAQ and Kings Health questionnaire (KHQ) prior to consultation, and the consulting urologist made an independent assessment of LUTS and need for treatment.

    ● Psychometric properties of the B-SAQ were analysed.

    ● 98% of respondents completed all items correctly in less than 5 min.

    ● Mean B-SAQ scores were 12 and 3.3, respectively for cases (n=101) and controls (n=108) (p<0.00001).

    ● Good correlation was evident between the B-SAQ and the KHQ.

    ● The agreement between the individual B-SAQ items and the KHQ symptom severity scale was 86%, 85%, 84% and 79% for frequency, urgency, nocturia and urinary incontinence.

    ● Using a B-SAQ symptom threshold of ≥ 4 alone had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 75%, 86% and 84%, respectively, for detecting LUTS with an area under the curve of 0.88. However, in combination with a bother score threshold of ≥ 1 this changed to 92%, 46% and 86%.

    ● The B-SAQ is an easy and quick valid case finding tool for LUTS / OAB in men.

    ● The B-SAQ has the potential to raise awareness of LUTS.

    ● It appears to be less specific in men compared to women.

    ● Further validation in a community setting is required.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)783-788
    Number of pages6
    JournalBJU International
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - May 2014


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