Validity of continuous glucose monitoring for categorizing glycemic responses to diet: Implications for use in personalized nutrition

Jordi Merino, Inbar Linenberg, Kate M. Bermingham, Sajaysurya Ganesh, Elco Bakker, Linda M. Delahanty, Andrew T. Chan, Joan Capdevila Pujol, Jonathan Wolf, Haya Al Khatib, Paul W. Franks, Tim D. Spector, Jose M. Ordovas, Sarah E. Berry*, Ana M. Valdes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Continuous glucose monitor (CGM) devices enable characterization of individuals' glycemic variation. However, there are concerns about their reliability for categorizing glycemic responses to foods that would limit their potential application in personalized nutrition recommendations. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the concordance of 2 simultaneously worn CGM devices in measuring postprandial glycemic responses. Methods: Within ZOE PREDICT (Personalised Responses to Dietary Composition Trial) 1, 394 participants wore 2 CGM devices simultaneously [n = 360 participants with 2 Abbott Freestyle Libre Pro (FSL) devices; n = 34 participants with both FSL and Dexcom G6] for ≤14 d while consuming standardized (n = 4457) and ad libitum (n = 5738) meals. We examined the CV and correlation of the incremental area under the glucose curve at 2 h (glucoseiAUC0-2 h). Within-subject meal ranking was assessed using Kendall τ rank correlation. Concordance between paired devices in time in range according to the American Diabetes Association cutoffs (TIRADA) and glucose variability (glucose CV) was also investigated. Results: The CV of glucoseiAUC0-2 h for standardized meals was 3.7% (IQR: 1.7%-7.1%) for intrabrand device and 12.5% (IQR: 5.1%-24.8%) for interbrand device comparisons. Similar estimates were observed for ad libitum meals, with intrabrand and interbrand device CVs of glucoseiAUC0-2 h of 4.1% (IQR: 1.8%-7.1%) and 16.6% (IQR: 5.5%-30.7%), respectively. Kendall τ rank correlation showed glucoseiAUC0-2h-derived meal rankings were agreeable between paired CGM devices (intrabrand: 0.9; IQR: 0.8-0.9; interbrand: 0.7; IQR: 0.5-0.8). Paired CGMs also showed strong concordance for TIRADA with a intrabrand device CV of 4.8% (IQR: 1.9%-9.8%) and an interbrand device CV of 3.2% (IQR: 1.1%-6.2%). Conclusions: Our data demonstrate strong concordance of CGM devices in monitoring glycemic responses and suggest their potential use in personalized nutrition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1569-1576
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume115
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • continuous glucose monitoring
  • diet
  • glycemic variability
  • meal responses
  • precision nutrition

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