Vital Sign Prediction of Adverse Maternal Outcomes in Women with Hypovolemic Shock: The Role of Shock Index

Alison M El Ayadi, Hannah L Nathan, Paul T Seed, Elizabeth A Butrick, Natasha L Hezelgrave, Andrew H Shennan, Suellen Miller

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72 Citations (Scopus)
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal vital sign predictor of adverse maternal outcomes in women with hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage and to develop thresholds for referral/intensive monitoring and need for urgent intervention to inform a vital sign alert device for low-resource settings.

STUDY DESIGN: We conducted secondary analyses of a dataset of pregnant/postpartum women with hypovolemic shock in low-resource settings (n = 958). Using receiver-operating curve analysis, we evaluated the predictive ability of pulse, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, shock index, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure for three adverse maternal outcomes: (1) death, (2) severe maternal outcome (death or severe end organ dysfunction morbidity); and (3) a combined severe maternal and critical interventions outcome comprising death, severe end organ dysfunction morbidity, intensive care admission, blood transfusion ≥ 5 units, or emergency hysterectomy. Two threshold parameters with optimal rule-in and rule-out characteristics were selected based on sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values.

RESULTS: Shock index was consistently among the top two predictors across adverse maternal outcomes. Its discriminatory ability was significantly better than pulse and pulse pressure for maternal death (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively), diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure for severe maternal outcome (p<0.01), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure for severe maternal outcome and critical interventions (p<0.01). A shock index threshold of ≥ 0.9 maintained high sensitivity (100.0) with clinical practicality, ≥ 1.4 balanced specificity (range 70.0-74.8) with negative predictive value (range 93.2-99.2), and ≥ 1.7 further improved specificity (range 80.7-90.8) without compromising negative predictive value (range 88.8-98.5).

CONCLUSIONS: For women with hypovolemic shock from obstetric hemorrhage, shock index was consistently a strong predictor of all adverse outcomes. In lower-level facilities in low resource settings, we recommend a shock index threshold of ≥ 0.9 indicating need for referral, ≥ 1.4 indicating urgent need for intervention in tertiary facilities and ≥ 1.7 indicating high chance of adverse outcome. The vital sign alert device incorporated values 0.9 and 1.7; however, all thresholds will be prospectively validated and clinical pathways for action appropriate to setting established prior to clinical implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0148729
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2016


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