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Vitamin and trace element concentrations in infants and children with chronic kidney disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Triona Joyce, Pernille Rasmussen, Nabil Melhem, Joanna Clothier, Caroline Booth, Manish D. Sinha

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1463-1470
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020

King's Authors


Background: There are limited data regarding vitamin and trace element blood concentrations and supplementation needs in children with non-dialysis stages 3–5 of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional review for nutritional blood concentrations measured over a recent 2-year period. In our CKD clinics, nutritional bloods including copper, zinc, selenium and vitamin A, vitamin E, active vitamin B12 and folate are monitored annually. Vitamin D status is monitored every 6–12 months. Results: We reviewed 112 children (70 boys) with median (IQ1, IQ3) age 8.97 (4.24, 13.80) years. Estimated median (IQ1, IQ3) GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) was 28 (21, 37). Vitamin A, active vitamin B12 and vitamin E concentrations were within normal range in 19%, 23% and 67% respectively, with all others being above normal range. Vitamin D blood concentrations were within desired range for 85% (15% had low levels) and folate blood concentrations were within normal range in 92%, with the remainder above or below target. For trace elements, 60%, 85% and 87% achieved normal ranges for zinc, selenium and copper respectively. Deficiencies were seen for zinc (35%), copper (7%), folate (3%) and selenium (1%), whilst 5%, 6% and 14% had zinc, copper and selenium levels above normal ranges. Conclusions: Several vitamin and trace element blood concentrations were outside normal reference ranges. Monitoring vitamin D and zinc blood concentrations is indicated due to the percentages with low levels in this group. Targeted vitamin and trace element supplementation should be considered where indicated rather than commencing multivitamin and/or mineral supplementation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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