War in the Grey Zone: Historical Reflections and Contemporary Implications

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4 Citations (Scopus)


This article analyses the concept of ‘grey zone’ warfare, which is influencing the US and British defence communities’ current thinking on the nature of contemporary warfare and the threats their countries and allies face. It argues that the ‘grey zone’ is not a new development, and that it has numerous historical precedents. The study of these historical examples demonstrates that the methods of indirect and undeclared warfare do not offer certain strategic success, and that scholars as well as military and policy-making practitioners can utilise these case studies to identify means by which grey zone aggression can be countered.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-158
Number of pages28
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Grey zone warfare. Hybrid war. Contemporary warfare. NATO. Russia.


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