WNT Signaling in Activated Microglia Is Proinflammatory

Carina Halleskog, Jan Mulder, Jenny Dahlstrom, Ken Mackie, Tibor Hortobagyi, Heikki Tanila, Lakshman Kumar Puli, Katrin Faerber, Tibor Harkany, Gunnar Schulte

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    169 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Microglia activation is central to the neuroinflammation associated with neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly because activated microglia are often a source of proinflammatory cytokines. Despite decade-long research, the molecular cascade of proinflammatory transformation of microglia in vivo remains largely elusive. Here, we report increased beta-catenin expression, a central intracellular component of WNT signaling, in microglia undergoing a proinflammatory morphogenic transformation under pathogenic conditions associated with neuroinflammation such as Alzheimer's disease. We substantiate disease-associated beta-catenin signaling in microglia in vivo by showing age-dependent b-catenin accumulation in mice with Alzheimer's-like pathology (APdE9). In cultured mouse microglia expressing the WNT receptors Frizzled FZD(4,5,7,8) and LDL receptor-related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6), we find that WNT-3A can stabilize beta-catenin. WNT-3A dose dependently induces LRP6 phosphorylation with down-stream activation of disheveled, beta-catenin stabilization, and nuclear import. Gene-expression profiling reveals that WNT-3A stimulation specifically increases the expression of proinflammatory immune response genes in microglia and exacerbates the release of de novo IL-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor a. In summary, our data suggest that the WNT family of lipoglycoproteins can instruct proinflammatory microglia transformation and emphasize the pathogenic significance of beta-catenin-signaling networks in this cell type. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)119 - 131
    Number of pages13
    JournalGlia
    Volume59
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011

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