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WWOM VII: Effectiveness of topical interventions in the management of burning mouth syndrome: A systematic review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Sandra Goncalves, Barbara Carey, Arwa M. Farag, Michal Kuten-Shorrer, Zuhair S. Natto, Anura Ariyawardana, Lina M. Mejia, Milda Chmieliauskaite, Craig S. Miller, Mark Ingram, Cibele Nasri-Heir, Andrea Sardella, Charles R. Carlson, Gary D. Klasser, Francis O'Neill, Rui Albuquerque

Original languageEnglish
JournalOral Diseases
Accepted/In press2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: This project is a continuation for the BMS projects that stemmed from the World Workshop in Oral Medicine VII (WWOM VII). The authors express their appreciation for the opportunity to work and collaborate with the WWOM VII Steering Committee that conceptualized and supported the WWOM VII Conference in September 2018 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The Steering Committee is listed below, in alphabetical order: Martin S. Greenberg (USA), Timothy A. Hodgson (UK), Siri Beier Jensen (Denmark), A. Ross Kerr (USA), Peter B. Lockhart (USA), Giovanni Lodi (Italy), and Douglas E. Peterson (USA). Moreover, the authors acknowledge the following companies/organizations that provided financial support for the WWOM VII: American Academy of Oral Medicine, European Association of Oral Medicine, The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, The British Society for Oral Medicine, Xerostom, Dermtreat, Oral Diseases, Henry Schein Cares, Colgate, Unilever, and The World Dental Education Foundation. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

King's Authors


Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical interventions in the management of burning mouth syndrome (BMS), based on the core outcome domains recommended by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT). Methods: A systematic literature review of RCTs on topical interventions for the management of BMS, published in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database/Central, and Google Scholar through May 2021 was performed. Results: Eight RCTs (n = 358 study participants) were included in this study. Due to underreporting of IMMPACT domains, publication bias, high degree of heterogeneity between studies, meta-analysis was not undertaken. Based on changes in visual analogue pain scores (ΔVAS), the most reported outcome, the effectiveness of the topical interventions was demonstrated; however, it is low level of evidence. Conclusions: High levels of variability (interventions, outcomes, outcome measurement tools, and intervention effects evaluated), heterogeneity, publication bias, and underreporting of IMMPACT domains were observed across the RCTs. This systematic review highlights the need for application of standardized outcome measures to future RCTs. At the present time, there is lack of moderate-strong evidence on short- and long-term outcomes to support or refute the use of any particular topical intervention in managing BMS. Future RCTs with standardized outcome measures are needed.

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